When is Biopsy Needed?
The most important method of analyzing the condition of the prostate and the most informative of the existing ones is a biopsy. The technique involves taking pieces of tissue from patient and subsequent histological examination.
Purpose of Biopsy
The analysis shows whether there are tumor processes in the body and in what state the formation is. Biopsy of the prostate gland is prescribed when pathology is detected, which is determined by examining patient and high PSA analysis. As a result of the study, it is determined in what state the tumor is.
The most commonly used transrectal method is when the rectal wall is punctured. In the presence of pathology in the anus, transperineal biopsy is performed, puncture is performed on the perineal site. Transurethral method can also be used, which involves sampling material through the urethra.
This method is used most often and is performed under ultrasound guidance.
Such a measure is necessary to monitor the passage of the needle into the affected organ. The procedure is performed very quickly and is repeated ten times. Biopsies are taken from different sites. The procedure takes no more than half an hour.
Pain in the Procedure
During the test, patient feels slight discomfort when the biopsy needle is inserted. With the transrectal technique, pressure is felt during the insertion of the ultrasound probe; insertion of the needle may be accompanied by slight pain.
When the analysis is complete, patient should not physically work for several hours.
Patient may feel slight pain in the pelvic area, there is often blood in the urine after the procedure, and semen changes color. All changes, as a rule, take place within a month.
If the biopsy is taken transrectally, the rectum may bleed.
In cases where general anesthesia is used, patient is in hospital for several hours after the end of the analysis, and feeling of fatigue will be observed all day.
Patient's condition is assessed as severe;
With diseases of the rectum;
Patient has an acute stage of prostatitis.
Second Biopsy is Done If
At the first biopsy, areas of epithelial proliferation with atypia are diagnosed;
When, with a negative result, an increase in PSA is observed;
If the radiation therapy was not effective enough;
Occurrence of relapse after prostatectomy.
Diagnosis of the prostate, like any invasive procedure, can have complications:
In some cases, infection occurs in patients with undetected prostatitis, treatment is carried out with antibiotics, preventing its further development;
Bleeding into the bladder or urethra causes disturbances in urination or leads to increased frequency, there is blood in the urine;
Allergy to anesthesia may occur;
With transrectal biopsy, bleeding in the rectum may occur and will stop after 2–3 days.
All recommendations for preparing for a biopsy of the prostate to the patient are voiced by the doctor of the Central Clinical Hospital. In some cases, at the preparatory stage, the patient needs to take antibiotics for prophylactic purposes.
The analysis is carried out by the urologist of the Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences, using high-tech diagnostic equipment.
During the procedure, patient is dressed in special clothing. The area of the skin on which the puncture will be made is treated with an antiseptic compound, the adjacent areas are covered with sterile tissue. The actions are performed under ultrasound control.
Before the procedure, doctor needs to know:
Whether patient is allergic to something;
Does the patient take medication regularly, and what kind.
Diagnosis through the rectum requires its preliminary cleansing - patient is given an enema. It is necessary to take a sedative about an hour before the test. The procedure is carried out with a dropper.
It is mandatory to contact a specialist in the following cases:
If bleeding has not stopped within three days;
When high temperature or fever occurs;
With severe pain;
If you cannot urinate within eight hours of taking the biopsy.