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Bone Marrow Biopsy is one of the methods of bone marrow examination, which is performed by puncture of the anterior wall of the sternum. Bone marrow biopsy is the most indicative and accurate way to study and evaluate the stage of development of many serious diseases, such as leukemia and other hematopoietic pathologies.

Purpose of the Study

Bone marrow biopsy allows you to quickly and accurately identify the presence of degenerative and malignant changes in the hematopoietic system. This is a minimally invasive procedure consisting in the collection of a small amount of bone tissue, using a puncture of the anterior wall of the sternum. Next, the resulting sample is sent to the laboratory for microscopic and histological studies, as well as a number of other tests (genetic, immunological analyzes, etc.).

Biopsy Preparation

The bone marrow tissue is taken outpatiently under sterile operating conditions. Before the procedure, patient must give blood test, no other preparation is required.

How is the Procedure Performed

Bone marrow biopsy is performed using local anesthesia, so the procedure is completely painless. Puncture is performed in the sternum or ilium. An oncohematologist with a special needle will carefully punctures and takes a little bone marrow tissue with a vacuum syringe. The puncture site is closed with a sterile dressing, and the biopsy sample is placed on a glass slide and sent to laboratory for examination. The duration of the procedure is about 20 -25 minutes.

Quick Details
  • Patient Preparation

    Not more than 5-10 days before the manipulation, make a general blood test, coagulogram

    All drugs (especially anticoagulant) are canceled, except for those that are vital

    Two hours before the puncture, the last meal and water is possible

    Before the procedure, the bladder and intestines should be empty

    It is allowed to take analgesics, sedatives before the procedure

    Indicate allergy to drugs

  • After the Procedure

    After taking bone marrow biopsy, sterile dressing is applied to this area. Then patient can go home and return to daily activities.

  • Care

    Dressing should remain dry for 24 hours.

Indications and Contraindications

The indications for bone marrow biopsy are:

Changes in white blood cells, red blood cells, etc., indicating the presence of problem of bone marrow hematopoiesis;
Suspected bone marrow degenerative processes;
Diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia;
Identification of oncohematological pathologies - lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, etc .;
Diagnosis of the stage and degree of leukemia;

The study is not conducted for patients with bleeding disorders in order to avoid the development of bleeding.

Rehabilitation Period

In order to avoid the development of complications, after the procedure it is necessary to follow a number of recommendations:

Do not touch the sterile dressing for 24 hours;
Avoid shower and bath;
Minimize physical activity for 2-3 days.
If sedative was used, during the day patient should avoid driving a car.


Bone marrow biopsy is performed to confirm the diagnosis of bone marrow metastases and to elucidate the causes of leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, and anemia. Bone marrow biopsy helps evaluate the effectiveness of drug therapy for blood diseases.

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